Sunday, March 25, 2018

Abandoned Endau Chimney

This abandoned brick chinmey
of about 35m high
was said to have some connections
with the Japanese Iron Ore Mines of
Shigeru Iizuka at Bukit Langkap,
some 20 miles from Endau.
It could possibly be of a smelter like the ones
of Kuhara Bukit Besi Mines in Terengganu


A present day target of lightning strike

excerpt from a  British Malaya document,

In 1936 exports in Johore were increased by initial shipments from the Iizuka Mines at Bukit Langkap, Endau.1939 British Malaya as a Leading Source for Japanese Iron 67 which exported about 50,000 tons in 1937. A shipping quota of 250,000 tons was set for 1938. Ore reserves are estimated at about 2,500,000 tons in the Bukit Langkap deposit, but neighboring deposits at Sambang and Tanjong Tuan, held by the same company, have not yet been exploited. The ore, carrying about 58% metallic iron, is of somewhat lower grade than that from Sri Medan, but contains a higher percentage of manganese, which is said to equalize the price obtained. Average exports of Malayan ore carry about 64% iron. In 1928 Isihara Sangyo Koshi, Ltd., began production at its Machang Stahun Mine in Kemanan, Treng- ganu, exporting 20,000 tons. In 1930 another Japanese concern, the Nippon Mining Company, also turned its attention to the iron ore deposits of this state, operating at Bukit Besi, Dungun. The combined output of the two mines soon exceeded production in Johore and in 1936 reached 1,064,000 tons. Of this amount, the Bukit Besi Mine, which is by far the larger, produced 911,000 tons. Its estimated life is very considerable, whereas the older mine at Machang Stahun has an estimated life of only five years or less on a much smaller production basis. The main mineral-bearing areas of Trengganu are confined to Kemanan and Dungun. Other deposits of iron ore besides those now worked are reported, but have not yet been prospected. The greater portion of the ore produced is hematite, although in Dungun magnetite is also an important constituent. In the present decade the search for workable deposits of iron ore turned to Kelantan and, in 1935, the Southern Mining Company, Ltd., incorporated in Tokyo, was granted an agreement for a mining lease over a considerable area near Temangan. A reserve of about 6,000,000 tons is estimated and is being developed to produce 150,000 tons yearly. Other deposits are apparently worked in Kelantan, but at this dis- tance, in the absence of definite information, their exact nature is obscure. Low-grade limonite is reported and there are indications that some of these projects may represent an attempt to utilize the fer- ruginous content of laterite, which is widespread throughout Malaya as a surface formation, but has been considered of little economic value. At any rate, production of iron ore in Kelantan is proceeding on a fairly extensive scale. In 1937, when production figures for this state appeared for the first time in the Annual Report of the Mines Department, Federated Malay States, output from Kelantan was placed at 827,000 tons, against 620,000 tons from Johore and 991,000 tons from Trengganu. For the three states, combined iron ore production in 1937 reached 2,438,000 tons, representing an increase of almost 800,000 tons over 1936, the highest previous year. Of this amount, 1,539,000 tons, valued at S$7,125,000, were exported, a slight decrease from 1936, with Japan taking all except two or three hun- dred tons. Since total Japanese imports of iron ore in 1937 were about 5,500,000 tons, including 1,500,000 tons from Korea, the importance of the British Malayan supply under the circumstances is obvious. This importance seems destined to increase rather than diminish. Considerations of imperial grand strategy have lifted the production goal of the Japanese steel industry to a figure which will require the importation of 12,000,000 tons or more of iron ore annually by 1940 (see "Australia Cancels Japanese Iron Exploitation Contracts," Far Eastern Survey, July 13, 1938), of which at least 9,000,000 tons will have to come from Central China, southeastern Asia or sources further removed. With the promising Australian supply elimi- nated as a result of the export embargo imposed last year by the Australian Government (see "Repercus- sions of the Australian Embargo on Iron Ore Exports," Far Eastern Survey, Dec. 21, 1938) and the apparent intention of Indo-China to adopt similar measures, Japan has little choice except to cultivate intensively the sources remaining open to her. If Japanese needs largely created the iron mining industry of British Malaya, the same driving force has spurred continued efforts to expand it. Explora- tions of promising areas have been undertaken by Japanese interests, not only in the present producing states, but in Kedah and the Federated Malay States. In the latter there is no production except about 1,000 tons annually for special local use from a hematite deposit at Tambun, near Ipoh, Perak. Possibilities of large-scale production here have been investigated, but without result to date. Pahang, another of the Federated Malay States, has been the scene of frequent ex- plorations, and several years ago deposits of iron ore estimated at some 8,000,000 tons were said to have been discovered. Prospecting has continued and during 1937 and on into 1938 Isihara Sangyo Koshi, Ltd., was test- ing deposits at Ulu Rompin and Sungei Bebar, consist- ing of a mixture of limonite and hematite. Approximately 1,000,000 tons of ore have also been proved in the Gunong Lesong Forest Reserve. Altogether, Pahang is reported to offer "excellent prospects." Prospects for the industry in the entire peninsula are affected in some measure by several adverse influ- ences, some of them extraneous. Local transportation is always a factor and the foreign exchange situation in Japan has to be considered. Again, the small decrease in iron ore exports shown in 1937 as against 1936 was caused by shortage of ocean tonnage and labor troubles in the mines. For this, in each case, the Sino- Japanese conflict in China was responsible. Under the circumstances, in an area where the Chinese form the bulk of the trading and laboring classes and especially predominate in the mines, some friction was inevitable.

1959 Malaya Mining map
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Bukit Besi Chimneys

Bukit Besi Chimneys